Understanding software-defined radios and networks within the 5G framework

The world of wireless is changing as 5G is finally reaching the end user. One of 5G’s biggest promises is huge device communications to power revolutionary IoT systems such as stand-alone vehicles, metaverse hardware, virtual gaming (VR), and smart factories. Some of the 5G technologies needed for this revolution are machine-to-machine (M2M) communication, mass machine-to-machine (mMTC) communication, high-reliability low-latency communication (URLLC), and advanced mobile broadband (eMBB). In this context, the optimization of base stations is crucial to ensure low latency connections, optimal allocation of spectrum and processing resources, and dense deployment of small cells.

In addition, 5G offers converged network communication between multi-technology networks and open communication systems to work with satellites, mobile networks, clouds, data centers and home gateways. In addition, 5G systems are autonomous and sufficiently adaptable to the required QoS to handle application-based networks dynamically. In this context, we discuss here the orchestration of 5G mobile service architecture (SBA) architectures implemented over Open Radio Access Network (O-RAN) technology. This article also covers the use of software-defined radios (SDRs) and software-defined networks (SDNs) in 5G, which enable network virtualization (NFV), network slicing, cloud / edge computing, artificial intelligence (AI), and machine. learning (ML).

The first component of the 5G structure is the transport network that connects the 5G RAN to the core network. It can be divided into three structures: front, center and back (see Figure 1). Distributed Units (DUs) are connected to Long Range Radio Units (RRUs) via a fronthaul network, where each DU can travel distances from a few kilometers to more than 50 km, controlling multiple antennas. The central connection establishes an intermediate connection by connecting the distributed devices (DU) to the central processing unit (CU). Finally, the backhaul connects CPUs and remote / mobile systems to the transmission network. In addition to the transport network, the 5G core network includes several access and control components. In the SBA architecture, the components are housed in a set of interconnected network functions (NFs), including the NF storage function (NRF), the network segment selection function (NSSF), the policy management function (PCF), and the user layer function (UPF). , Session Management (SMF), Access and Mobility Management (AMF), and Data Network (DN). On the user equipment (UE) side, access is controlled and implemented through gNB nodes that communicate with AMF and UPF services through NG interfaces. The NG interface carries both user-level and management-level protocols: the user-level implements a PDU (Protocol Data Unit) session, and the control-level handles both the session and the network connection, including service request and transmission resources.

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Figure 1: 5G network architecture consists of three structures. (Source: Per Vices)

To better understand the benefits of 5G, let’s compare it to the giant 4G / LTE technology. First, the core of 5G technology is fundamentally different, using mmWave, huge MIMO connections, cloud-based software design, and advanced system virtualization. Second, 3GPP is a 5G service-based architecture, which means that system elements are defined as network functions (NFs) that provide services to other NFs with authorized access. The service-based nature is more attractive than 4G / LTE deployment because it offers network slicing, feature virtualization, cloud-based systems, and better compatibility with open RAN technology. Moreover, 4G protocols do not include the use of UPFs to decouple gateway and user level and the use of AMFs to separate session management from connection and mobility management. In 5G, the user and control levels are separated because UE traffic is 1000 times higher than in 4G. Finally, 5G systems allow the use of smaller and more specific network cells, such as femoral cells and longitudinal cells.

One of the most important aspects of 5G is the decoupling and virtualization of RAN elements, which enables smarter, more dynamic and more flexible networks for a variety of applications. The RAN (O-RAN) architecture is at the forefront of the RAN development movement. By opening the interface between the components of the RAN, it allows O-RAN operators to combine different suppliers in the same system, improving flexibility and giving the operator the freedom to work with the chosen technology provider. In the O-RAN, the base station is divided into two: a centralized unit (CU) and a distributed unit (DU) (Figure 2). CUs are responsible for larger time scale functions, while DUs are responsible for time-critical tasks. At the end of the circuit, long-range radio units (RRUs) manage all radio frequency communications and components, such as modulation, coding and interference avoidance. For the protocol stack, the CU manages the higher layers, the DU manages the lower layers, and the RRU handles the physical layers. The open interfaces between the CU and the DU are called higher layer distributions (HLS), while the connections between the DU and the RRU consist of lower layer distributions (LLS). All O-RAN applications run on the RAN Intelligent Controller (RIC). The RIC platform provides abstraction of RAN components by integrating optimization and automation algorithms.

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Figure 2: The open RAN (O-RAN) architecture is shown. (Source: Per Vices)

Software-defined radios, or SDRs, are radio systems that consist of an analog radio front end (RFE), an FPGA-based digital device, and a mixed signal interface, typically through ADCs and DACs. The RFE is responsible for receiving and transmitting the analog portion of the RF signal, which is sampled by the DAC / ADC interface. RFE is an important part of the circuit because it determines the signal range, number of channels, and bandwidth. The highest performance RFE on the market achieves 3 GHz instantaneous bandwidth using up to 16 independent channels. The core of the SDR is the FPGA, which is configured with DSP capabilities: modulation / demodulation, up / down conversion, and data packetization. FPGAs are fully configurable digital logic arrays, so the same system can support multiple processing algorithms, state-of-the-art protocols, and even artificial intelligence without hardware changes. SDRs offer low latency, flexibility, high interoperability (essential for the 5G physical layer), and huge MIMO capabilities – useful for high-speed formulation and spatial multiplexing. One commercial example is Per Vices’ Cyan SDR (Figure 3), which can be used as the core for 5G base stations and test systems / emulators.

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Figure 3: Per Vices Cyan can be used in 5G base stations. (Source: Per Vices)

In the context of 5G, both RRUs and Baseband Units (BBUs) may include one or more SDRs to perform radio-related functions, providing compatibility, interoperability and flexibility. For example, in gNodeB 5G BBUs, connections to RRUs are made using eCPRI optical fibers. In such cases, the SDR must include both eCPRI and Gigabit Ethernet (GBE) ports, as well as the ability to handle MIMO antennas. RRU SDRs, on the other hand, must conform to the application frequency band, which can be either FR1 or FR2. FR1 (frequency band 1) covers frequencies below 6 GHz (600 to 6000 MHz), while FR2 (frequency band 2) covers the frequency range 24.25 to 52.6 GHz. The FR2 band is used in shorter range / higher bandwidth applications than the FR1. The RRU SDR must be selected and configured to operate on the desired spectrum. Small elements also benefit from SDR applications, as the market offers lightweight, low-power and compact integrated radio frequency solutions.

The importance of implementing SDR stems from its role in O-RAN systems. The three most important landmarks of O-RAN are fragmentation, virtualization, and software theft, the latter provided by SDRs. Software shedding is critical to achieving URLLC, eMBB, and mMTC functions. In addition, SDR-based systems are flexible, upgradeable, and interoperable, giving the operator control over the RAN without the need to constantly replace hardware. SDRs can also follow instructions generated by RICs, which is crucial for RAN optimization and automation.

Software Defined Networking (SDN)

Software-defined networking (SDN) is the physical separation of control-level functions and transmission functions. The typical SDN architecture is divided into three parts: the application layer, the control layer – where the SDN controller works – and the physical infrastructure. Layers communicate with each other through APIs (north-facing APIs for application management communication and south-facing management infrastructures). SDN improves programmability and enables a higher level of network automation and optimization. It also offers a cloud-like capability in the structure, enabling centralized computing and physical layer network control, data analytics algorithms, and system virtualization through virtual overlay networks. System virtualization enables one of 5G’s most important features: network cutting.

Network slicing refers to the division of a physical network into several virtual networks that are unique and optimized for a specific service or application. Each virtual network or segment can only be configured with the specific resources needed to perform a specific task, such as stand-alone vehicles, IoT devices, and mobile services. The most obvious advantage of this technique is the optimization and tuning of resource allocation to meet the needs of specific customers and market segments. Client-side services can be classified into eMBB, mMTC, and urLLC, with each category having its own bandwidth, bandwidth, latency, and reliability requirements (Figure 4). Network slicing is achieved through a combination of SDNs, SDRs, virtualization of network functions, data analytics, and automation. Full automation is especially important to allow real-time network customization, design, and control over a huge number of segments of a single RAN.

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Figure 4: This is a picture of a 5G network split. (Source: Per Vices)

Virtualization of network functions (NFV) is crucial in designing network cutting methods. This method allows you to virtualize RAN and core network functions that were once performed by hardware, such as routing, scaling, security, and load balancing. By implementing network features in the software, operators can continuously update network features with state-of-the-art algorithms without the need to replace hardware, saving time, reducing installation costs and reducing customer disruption. Moreover, NFV allows real-time reallocation and reallocation of functions across network segments, as well as cross-sector and intra-sector management of RAN resources.

To optimize SDR and SDN / NFV network resources

The enormous data transfer capacity required by 5G systems can easily be surpassed by the most advanced LTE networks. For example, a typical CPRI-based LTE pre-connection typically handles about 10-20 MHz channel bandwidth, which means about 10 Gbps in a 10-channel connection. 5G, on the other hand, handles bandwidths between 100 MHz and 500 MHz, and massive MIMO scaling can extend the bandwidth of Tbps. CPRI fibers are no longer sufficient and optimized technologies such as Advanced CPRI (eCPRI) are needed. In the front connection of the eCPRI interface, the functions of the physical layer are divided between the RRU and the DU in an optimized proportion, thus increasing the complexity of the RUU and at the same time reducing the load on the front connection. The requirement to optimize performance is not limited to the front-line, as location, access, and resource startup management are highly dependent on the requirements of the service part. SDR- and SDN / NFV-based structures may be helpful in this context (Figure 5).

There are several different types of orchestration and direction to optimize 5G. For example, the software-defined RAN (SD-RAN) community develops O-RAN-compatible open source RIC controllers. The SD-RAN project focuses on the development of near real-time RICs (nRT-RICs) to optimize network management dynamics and latency, the most prominent of which is the open source µONOS-RIC. In addition to its open source nature, µONOS-RIC is compatible with AI / ML-based applications that can be optimized for massive MIMO, self-organizing networks (SON), and intelligent radio resource management (RRM). Another recently developed optimization technology is the Cross-Layer Controller (CLC), which is used to allocate resources and link between network segments, depending on the RAN conditions monitored in real time. It works through SDR and SDN systems to manage and adjust across layers based on a set of targeted performance indicators (KPIs).

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What is SDR device?

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What can you do with a SDR?

Figure 5: SDN / NFV can be applied to 5G RANs to optimize performance. This may interest you : Wipro Partners with Exaware to Accelerate Innovation in Communication Networks and 5G Upgrades. (Source: Per Vices)

  • In O-RAN-based architectures, the main goal of network optimization is to improve overall performance under different conditions, avoid network instability, and solve problems with minimal service disruption. It does this by constantly measuring KPIs and crowd information, and making decisions to manage and customize cells. This prevents congestion, congestion and interference and reduces latency. In the O-RAN, optimization takes place via nRT-RICs. External intelligence can work on nRT-RICs, making decisions based on AI / ML algorithms. AI / ML-based nRT-RICs allow the use of advanced management algorithms such as dynamic spectrum allocation (DSS) and optimization of NSSI resource allocation.
  • In the O-RAN architecture, the split Option 7-2x LLS conforms to several optimization techniques, including high-speed design optimization. Fast generation can be designed to increase both data throughput and the number of parallel connections, and to improve network power efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio by focusing the RF beam on a specific location. Massive MIMO antennas play an important role in optimizing fast formation. In these systems, the controller sets a global optimization target, and each MIMO cell makes a partial contribution to the beam. SDR BBUs are crucial for the dynamic and coherent coordination of MIMO antennas.
  • Current research and 5G O-RAN testing systems
  • OG-oriented 5G architectures posed a number of network design challenges. Researchers are still working to address a number of technology bottlenecks, such as how to provide AROs with concise general data access, how to design robust data-driven control loops, and what the exact roles and requirements of each RAN component are. The SD-RAN community is one of the research groups trying to solve these problems. As mentioned earlier, SD-RAN developed an open source nRT-RIC that is compatible with AI / ML applications, providing the technology and abstraction needed to distribute data-driven control circuits and intelligence. The OpenRF Association, on the other hand, aims to develop a highly interoperable 5G ecosystem that includes both radio frequency hardware and software to reduce integration costs and time to market while maintaining sufficient flexibility and customization. Both SD-RAN and OpenRF projects would not be feasible without the use of powerful SDRs and SDNs.
  • It is impossible to discuss 5G studies, let alone emulators, especially the Colosseum. The Colosseum is the world’s largest network emulator testbed, with 256 SDRs capable of emulating up to 65,536 RF channels (100 MHz). This huge system can work with GNU radio, MATLAB and most DSP technologies and provides an excellent testing framework for AI / ML algorithms, MIMO systems and O-RAN in general. The Colosseum can also simulate path loss, multipath movement and extinction, providing RF conditions similar to the real environment. Leonardo Bonat’s research team recently used the Colosseum to validate the feasibility of network management using deep reinforcement learning (DRL) agents working on nRT-RICs through xApps. An algorithm that is compatible with the O-RAN works by selecting the most appropriate scheduling policy for each RAN segment, taking into account the URLLC, MTC, and eMBB. Compared to other approaches, the DRL system showed 20% better spectral efficiency and a 37% reduction in buffer occupancy.
  • This article discusses many aspects of 5G mobile SBA systems, including orchestration, deployment, management, and functionality, with a focus on the Open-RAN architecture. The Open-RAN community is leading the development of innovative 5G solutions using open and articulated interface standards between RRUs and BBUs. In this context, SDRs and SDNs are playing a major role in the 5G revolution, providing RNA flexibility, interoperability, software stewardship, and virtualization — key tools that enable unique 5G features such as network cutting and DSS. SDRs are also heavily involved in the development of innovative technologies and 5G research in software, real-time monitoring and control, AI / ML applications, and large-scale RAN emulation.
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  • A software-defined radio (SDR) system is a radio communication system that uses software to modulate and demodulate radio signals. Software-based radios are important for mobile telephony services, which must service various changing radio protocols in real time.

Do you need a license for SDR?

What is an SDR signal? Software Defined Radio (SDR) is a radio communication system that uses reconfigurable software-based components to process and convert digital signals. … If the front of the SDR system handles signals in the analog domain, the back handles signals in the digital domain.

Can you watch TV with SDR?

With SDR, you can perform various operations as follows.

What does an SDR receive?

You can receive radio broadcasts.

How does a SDR work?

Amateur radio.

How do you use a SDR radio? This may interest you : All Your SDR Software In A Handy Raspberry Pi Image.

How do SDR receivers work?

Radio astronomy.

What is SDR and how it works?

Track ships via AIS transmission.

What is the need for SDR?

Track planes through Mode S transmissions.

Who invented SDR?

Set up a DRM transmitter.

What is SDR in telecom?

Build a GSM network.

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What is the difference between a BDR and SDR?

Experiment with LTE.

You do not need a license to purchase or receive (listen to) the equipment, but you may need an FCC license to broadcast on amateur radio frequencies in the United States.

What is an SDR BDR AE?

SDR # A Google Groups Forum user has posted an ADSB # -based program called TVSharp that can be used to watch PAL and NTSC analog TV using the rtl-sdr dongle.

What is an AE and SDR?

A popular (and inexpensive) SDR receiver is the Digital Video Broadcast (DVB-T) receiver with Realtek RTL2832U controller and tuner integrated circuit. When originally intended for video reception, they have now been redesigned to receive radio signals and have become known as RTL-SDR devices.

What is BDR and AE?

The value of the SDR is determined on a daily basis by the IMF on the basis of daily exchange rates between the fixed amounts of the currencies in the SDR basket and the currencies in the SDR basket. SDRs are only allocated to IMF members who choose to participate in the SDR department.

What is A AE role?

Typically, an SDR receiver uses an ADC to convert analog antenna signals into digital signals that are processed by general purpose processor software.

What does BDR mean in sales?

The SDR is essentially an artificial currency instrument used by the IMF and is built on a basket of major national currencies. The IMF uses SDRs for internal accounting. SDRs are allocated by the IMF to its member countries and are backed by the full faith and credit of national governments.

What are BDR sales?

â € œEasy and cost-effective conversion of radios has become business critical. Software-defined radio (SDR) technology offers the flexibility, cost-effectiveness and power of communication, and the wide range of benefits for service providers and product developers up to the end users.

Is BDR a good job?

Software Defined Radio (SDR) is a design paradigm for wireless communication devices. Its creator, Joseph Mitola, defined the term in the early 1990s as a radio class identifier that can be reprogrammed and configured using software [12].

Is Inside sales the same as SDR?

Service providers that provide a Subscriber Details Record (SDR), call details. Relevant mobile phone record (CDR) and customer acquisition form (CAF). numbers in connection with a specific investigation.

Are SDRs marketing or sales?

A Sales Development Representative (SDR) or Business Development Representative (BDR) is usually in an early sales career, focusing on generating sales leads for new customers. SDR focuses on qualifying inbound leads, while BDR focuses on finding outbound leads.

Is SDR and BDR the same thing?

What does SDR mean for sale? Sale of SDRs. SDR stands for Sales Development Representative. As a member of the internal sales team, the person in this role focuses on finding outgoing potential, moving sales leads through the pipeline, and qualifying the sales leads they are connected to.

What is the difference between inside sales and customer service?

The BDR and SDR roles are the peak of the sales chain. Their job is to get leads by searching for and / or qualifying deals. From there, leadership is considered an opportunity and is used by AE, ISR, Field Rep, AM, or some other silly acronym. & # xd83d; & # xde42;

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What are the advantages of SDR?

In the working team, SDR is a specialist in web-based research, finding the right person, contacting them and arousing their interest, while AE is a specialist who helps the client to identify the main problems and solve them with possible solutions.

  • A strong relationship between the vendor or account manager (AE) and their business development representative (BDR) is critical to success. The team is not only more efficient, motivated and productive, but also has many learning opportunities.
  • An account manager (AE) is a salesperson who is responsible for the day-to-day business relationship with a customer. AEs understand in detail the goals, products and solutions of a customer company, the main purpose of which is to maintain and grow customer relationships.

The Business Development Representative (BDR) is responsible for creating new business opportunities by qualifying leads and looking for potential to interact with potential buyers through existing business accounts.

What advantage does a software defined radio have over purely analogue designs?

A Business Development Representative (BDR) is a sales representative who focuses on finding qualified leads through cold mail, cold calls, social sales, and networking. BDR (sometimes referred to as a sales representative) is the first point of contact for a potential customer.

What is the difference between a traditional radio and a software defined radio SDR?

If you enjoy working at a fast pace based on metrics, BDR may be a good fit. As a BDR, you will also gain valuable skills to take you to the next stage of your career when you are ready.

What are the advantages of software defined radio?

Inside Sales is a fast growing model for business-to-business (B2B) sales. Sales Development Agents (SDRs) are a key part of this model and the hiring of SDRs has increased significantly, especially among technology companies.

What is the difference between software defined radio and cognitive radio?

SDRs usually form a bridge between sales and marketing. A typical SDR job is to take sales leads from marketing, complete some basic BANT-style [1] qualifications, and then pass them on for sale if indicated.

What does an SDR receive?

A Sales Development Representative (SDR) or Business Development Representative (BDR) is usually in an early sales career, focusing on generating sales leads for new customers. SDR focuses on qualifying inbound leads, while BDR focuses on finding outbound leads. Neither is responsible for closing the business.

How do SDR receivers work?

Customer service only deals with existing customers. In Customer Service, you work with simple computer problems and follow the correct procedures to resolve the problem or escalate to a technician. Internal sales representatives work with new customers and offer them Elite IT services.

What is a DSP SDR receiver?

Advantages of SDR

What are the challenges in implementation of SDR?

A family of radio products implemented through a common platform architecture that allows new products to be brought to market faster.

Which among the following is not a property of offline software support?

Software that can be reused in radio “products”, significantly reducing development costs.

Who invented SDR?

What are SDR applications? These applications include the integration of wireless medical devices into a common communication platform for seamless interoperability, and the integration of cognitive radio (CR) body area networks (BANs) and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for medical environmental monitoring.

DSP tends to minimize costs and increase receiver flexibility. Thus, another goal of SDR research is to eliminate as much analog hardware as possible. On some days, it may be possible to receive signals digitally directly from the antenna while maintaining a high dynamic range.

What is SDR technology?

The radio defined by the software differs from the traditional radio in several ways. The biggest difference is how the radio frequency is detected and demodulated. The SDR uses a quadrature sampling detector (QSD) that divides the incoming waveform into a in-phase or (I) signal and a quadrature (Q) signal.

What is SDR used for in IoT?

One of the biggest advantages of SDR technology is that it can be precisely configured to meet the exact requirements of the user – small changes in the software can make the radio exactly compliant. Even with open source software, such as GNU software, it is becoming easier to implement.

What is SDR in information technology?

Modern software-defined radio is at the heart of cognitive radio. Radio applications distinguish cognitive radio from software-based radio. Additional hardware in the form of sensors and actuators enables more cognitive radio applications.

When was SDR invented?

A popular (and inexpensive) SDR receiver is the Digital Video Broadcast (DVB-T) receiver with Realtek RTL2832U controller and tuner integrated circuit. When originally intended for video reception, they have now been redesigned to receive radio signals and have become known as RTL-SDR devices.

Why was SDR created?

Typically, an SDR receiver uses an ADC to convert analog antenna signals into digital signals that are processed by general purpose processor software.

What is SDR used for?

Introduction. Software-defined radio seeks to place most or most of the complex signal processing of communication receivers and transmitters in a digital (DSP) style. In its purest form, an SDR receiver can simply consist of an analog-digital chip connected to an antenna.

Why SDR is called paper gold?

SDRs also pose many challenges, but some of them are causing the development of SDRs more slowly than otherwise expected. Transceiver development challenges include size, weight, and power issues, such as required computing power, as well as SW architecture challenges, such as waveform application portability.

What is SDR in telecom?

Which of the following is not part of offline software support? Explanation. System analysis, relocation of existing software to new hardware, and advanced signal processing are features of offline software support.

What is phone SDR?

Software Defined Radio (SDR) is a design paradigm for wireless communication devices. Its creator, Joseph Mitola, defined the term in the early 1990s as a radio class identifier that can be reprogrammed and configured using software [12].

How does a SDR work?

Why do we need SDR? The SDR processes a significant amount of signal in a general purpose computer or reconfigurable digital electronics. The purpose of this design is to produce a radio that can receive and transmit a new type of radio protocol simply by launching new software.

What is SDR in LTE?

Software Defined Radio (SDR) is a radio communication system in which components traditionally incorporated into hardware (eg mixers, filters, amplifiers, modulators / demodulators, detectors, etc.) are instead implemented by software on a personal computer or computer or a computer. built-in system.

What is SDR Sharp used for?

Wireless communication is one of the main areas of attack in the Internet of Things. SDR is the technology to build these wireless products, analyze communications and, most importantly, disrupt them!

What is software-defined radio? … Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology brings the benefits of flexibility, cost-effectiveness and capacity to service providers and the vast benefits of service providers and product developers to end users.

How use SDR RTL-SDR sharp?

Is RTL-SDR illegal?

The SDR is an international reserve created by the IMF in 1969 to supplement the official reserves of its member countries.

What is SDR sharp?

SDRs are the IMF’s units of account, not the currency itself. They represent a claim on the currency held by IMF member countries against which they can be exchanged. SDRs were created in 1969 to fill the shortfall in the assets of the preferred foreign exchange reserve, namely gold and the US dollar.

What is SDR equipment?

The IMF uses SDRs to provide emergency loans, and developing countries use them to increase their foreign exchange reserves without the need to borrow at high interest rates or maintain a current account surplus at the expense of economic growth.

What is SDR solution?

It complements the existing monetary reserves of the Member States. It was presented as an asset that can be used to close the balance of payments deficit in the same way as gold or the reserve currency, and is therefore referred to as paper gold.

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