Choosing the right radio solution provider for your application

Following the technological advancement of digital electronics, software-defined radios (SDRs) became a popular state-of-the-art technology in radio applications, creating a niche that expanded further. In the SDR market, there is a huge variety of products, ranging from small portable devices for the consumer enthusiast to precise and robust equipment for large organizations and critical applications. So it is common to find SDRs that vary from the size of a USB dongle to entire racks of SDRs, often with the form factor proportional to performance. Moreover, with the evolution of semiconductor technology, electronic components are now cheaper and smaller, which enables the development of SDR products with an optimal balance between performance, form factor and cost. Modern SDR manufacturers like Per Vices offer all these advantages combined with easy system integration and interoperability.

Product selection is not an easy task in the SDR field, and to guide you through this decision, we will discuss the basic concepts of SDR, applications, common challenges during system design, and how the right SDR can solve them.

Radio communication has long been dominated by analog circuit. However, analogue radio is very limited in terms of robustness, integration, flexibility, modulation / demodulation and frequency tuning. Even analog upgrades or changes can only be made by changing the hardware, which usually means that many circuit is replaced. The rapid development of digital technology allows radios to be defined by software rather than analog hardware. Modern SDRs are designed to achieve high levels of flexibility, stability and configuration by using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) as the heart of the calculation. FPGAs allow the implementation of different modulation protocols, bandwidth capture, error correction, DSP algorithms and even artificial intelligence in the same device, and upgrades can be carried out periodically by simply reprogramming the device. An SDR is divided into two primary elements: the radio frontend (RFE) and the digital backend (Figure 1).

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Figure 1: A high-level overview of SDR architecture. (Source: Per Vices)

The RFE is responsible for all essential analogue radio functions, such as pre-amplification, mixing and anti-aliasing or anti-imaging filtering. The RFE includes both reception (Rx) and transmission (Tx) channels that connect to or from an antenna via SMA connectors. In high-end SDRs, a state-of-the-art RFE can operate over a very high tuning frequency range and large instantaneous bandwidth. High-performance SDRs like Per Vices’ Cyan SDR can reach 3GHz of current bandwidth and up to 18GHz of tuning frequency, which can be upgraded up to 40 GHz. Both Tx and Rx channels are interfaced with the backend via ADCs and DACs, and one SDR can have several independent channels (up to 16).

The digital backend, on the other hand, performs all the signal processing, generation, data packing and flow control, and application level algorithms required for operation. It includes an FPGA with on-board DSP capabilities that are synchronized to various functional peripherals, such as clocks, power controllers, ADCs / DACs, communication interfaces, and displays.

Considering that the configuration described in the last section, there is a huge variety of SDR products on the market. This is because each component varies greatly depending on performance, size, cost and functionality. The main performance parameters that define the performance of a typical SDR are:

Because of this variety of possibilities, SDRs can be classified into three main categories:

With the evolution of small and powerful commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components, a fourth category is emerging that combines the convenience of mid-range devices with the performance of high-end SDRs.

Hobbyist level SDRs have become popular among technology enthusiasts with the advent of cheap and user-friendly digital platforms. Websites like rtl-sdr.com are constantly releasing new amateur SDR projects that push the boundaries of homemade electronics. Some examples are Amateur Radio Astronomy, VCR Decoding, and Airplane Tracking. The SDR used in these projects may not be very powerful, but this shows a number of applications that can be made with an SDR the size of a USB dongle.

High-end SDRs, on the other hand, are implemented in much more critical and accurate applications that require expensive components and software. Some examples of these applications are:

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Figure 2: A diagram of SAR radar operation. (Source: Per Vices)

Of course, the class of the SDR will greatly affect its performance: there is a huge gap between a USB dongle that costs less than $ 200 and precise equipment that costs tens or even hundreds of thousands of dollars. First, a high-end instrument will offer very large instantaneous bandwidth, which requires very fast ADCs / DACs for signal conversion. Configurability is essential in high-end devices, so FPGAs that support custom DSPs can be used with multiple parallel channels. To manage the massive amount of data in applications such as smart grids and defense systems, high-throughput data links and modern SDRs are required: the highest throughput SDRs use qSFP ports and optical cable transceivers to stream data up to 100Gbps. Furthermore, multiple channel operation with excellent phase coherence and stability is found only in high-end MIMO SDRs.

Other differences between high-performance and hobbyist SDRs are very low noise figure, high SFDR / dynamic range, multiple management ports, large tuning range, onboard waveform storage and high-quality RFE component. Figure 3 shows an example of high-end Tx / Rx channel, using top-tier component.

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Figure 3: Tx / Rx chains contain high quality components. (Source: Per Vices)

Although the market is more focused on either hobbyist level SDRs and top tier expensive devices, there is a significant demand for instruments in between, combining high performance with affordable prices. This class can be called optimal range SDRs, represented by SDRs such as Per Vices’ Chestnut SDR specifically designed to meet this demand. The Chestnut SDR offers high bandwidth, extended tuning range and high digital throughput in a 4 Rx / Tx architecture. Figure 4 shows a comparison between three typical SDRs on the market.

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Figure 4: Comparison of different classes of Per Vices SDRs. (Source: Per Vices)

Researchers and engineers often have a hard time developing RF systems due to limitations both internally and externally of the project. The typical and frustrating obstacle is the lack of funding. This problem is usually encountered in government laboratories that do not encourage the development of new specialized hardware and software for experiments. Also, the lack of funding prevents the acquisition of modern high-end equipment, so engineers often get stuck with older technology and older equipment to continue their projects.

Another issue is the so-called SWaP (size, weight and strength) limitation. For example, a radar system on an aircraft must be designed to operate reliably with a limited power supply, small size and weight, so that it can fulfill its function without compromising balance and space. Similarly, portable devices and small base stations for telecommunications, such as 5G networks, must offer high data power and low latency with very low power radio systems. However, the processing capabilities of the device are directly proportional to the power consumption, size and weight, so that there is a strong alternation between SWaP compliance and performance.

Unfortunately, high-performance radio applications require strong processing power. The main problem here is that high processing capacity means expensive processors. In high-end RF applications, there are several examples: SAR radars require enormous amounts of signal processing (including data compression and complex algorithms for artifact adjustments) in a very short period of time, beamforming / beamsteering requires highly synchronized and independent phase coherent channels, and spectrum monitoring Applications need to process large chunks of data almost in real time. In addition, the system must be able to change the process scheme for security and functionality, such as channel / frequency hopping for congestion prevention and modulation change in GPS / GNSS.

Even with a powerful embedded processor, a typical desktop computer system may not handle all the data captured in certain applications. In this case, a server-like host system should be implemented. However, this presents another problem: it is challenging to design a host system that is capable of capturing, storing and processing data in real time. In very low latency applications this is extremely problematic because data overflow and underflow occur very easily.

How SDRs and Custom Host Systems Can Help

As for the host system problem, custom systems can be developed to better comply with extremely high real-time data capture SDR applications. This usually includes server-like host systems with a large number of NVMe drivers, SD cards, some GB of RAM and real network interface cards (NICs) and / or FPGA based accelerator cards. There are also ways to reduce the latency between an SDR, and the optical links to the host system for the host system by switching to a real-time operating system (RTOS) or applying NICs optimized for low latency transfer. In extreme cases, such as HFT networks, SFP + connectors can be designed to work with custom interface protocols.

Since almost every important aspect of the SDR of the software is defined, it is also very easy to integrate solutions. For example, they can be used as simulation platforms for preliminary experiments because they are capable of working with different protocols and techniques before field testing. In addition, they can be shared between different experiments, because an SDR can be connected to a network, which reduces the cost for all the projects involved. Network connection also facilitates the integration and synchronization of point-to-point links or the use of an SDR as an external reference for other equipment.

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SDRs are also built in a modular way, which makes the SWaP more flexible for the intended application. In such cases, the SWaP can be customized by adding only the required peripherals, eliminating unnecessary components or reorienting boards to another chassis, thus reducing volume and weight. The portability provided by the reduced SWaP enables its transport to difficult areas, such as observatory telescopes, antennas and mounts and deployed in space systems, while also serving as a storage solution for data accumulated in such applications.

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What frequency is the ISS Ham radio on?

What frequency is the ISS Ham radio on?

Customization also allows for better compliance with the requirements of the application, for example, by optimizing the sensitivity and the dynamic range. This may interest you : Ananki start-up attempts to simplify private 5G. In addition, the FPGA can reconfigure its entire system at any time, so that the SDR can operate with different protocols, algorithms, data formats, and waveforms without hardware modification using the programmable internal logic block connections (Figure 5). The FPGA can also be customized to reduce the amount of processing and memory of the host computer.

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What amateur radio frequency does the ISS use?

Can ham radio speak to ISS? This may interest you : Tactical communication solution provides promise.

Figure 5: An FPGA contains logic blocks and input / output blocks with programmable interconnect. (Source: Per Vices)

What is the ISS downlink frequency?

Even if an SDR application is based on code, only basic knowledge of software development is required to configure and apply the device. Pre-developed code examples are incredibly useful for working with your SDR, and further customized software can be easily programmed into Python, C ++ and GNU Radio for a variety of functionalities. GNU Radio also offers various DSP tools for test and measurement, modulation / demodulation protocols. Figure 6 shows the implementation of PSK demodulation), error correction and spectrum analysis.
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Figure 6: GNU Radio can be used for PSK demodulation. (Source: https://wiki.gnuradio.org/index.php/File:Stage1.png)
Choosing the right SDR and / or complete system is fundamental to getting the most out of an RF-based application. However, this process can be challenging and very expensive, but the availability of affordable, high-performance SDRs makes this task easier. Suitable SDR models offer solutions for all application classes, from tech enthusiasts to large companies, all with state-of-the-art performance – and working with a vendor capable of providing customized development for your projects lets you easily translate your design into real-time paper Dear.
For more embedded content, subscribe to Embedded’s weekly email newsletter.A new RTL-SDR Radio Receiver app for Chrome has been released. The source code can be viewed on GitHub. The app is currently able to receive FM broadcasts and scan between them. To run this app, you need to have the Chrome web browser installed or a Chromebook laptop running.

How do I listen to ISS on the ham radio?

As mentioned above, the transceiver on board the ISS is tuned to transmit radio signals with a frequency of 145.80 MHz. “Anyone with a receiver or scanner that can tune to this frequency can listen to the space station when it’s overhead,” & quot; Ransom said.

How do I listen to ISS radio?

How do I listen to ISS on Baofeng? On the same subject : Texas project for 6G.

Can ham radio speak to ISS?

ISS Radio transmits signals at 145.80 MHz and receives signals at either 144.49 or 145.20 MHz, depending on its orbital location. Most school groups selected to participate in the ARISS program have set up a temporary ground station in their schools, often with the help of local amateur radio volunteers.

Can you listen to ISS radio?

A flood of voices erupted from the airwaves. Astronauts aboard the space station often talk to students on Ham radio, which can also be used in emergencies, but these are scheduled appearances. Some, like Wheelock, spend their limited free time making contact with amateur radio operators around the world.

How can I listen to the international space station?

ISS Amateur Radio Frequencies

Can ham radio speak to ISS?

Mode V APRS (Worldwide APRS Digipeater) Most common operating system mode.

What ham frequency is the International Space Station?

Downlink

Can you talk to the astronauts on the International Space Station?

145,800 MHz FM

Can you talk to astronauts on a ham radio?

Mode V / U FM voice repeater worldwide

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What is the difference between software defined radio and cognitive radio?

Uplink

145,990 MHz FM

What is Software Defined Radio in cognitive radio?

Almost every 144 MHz FM rig gets the ISS, you can even use a general coverage VHF scanner with an external antenna. As for the antenna, the simpler, the better. A ¼ wave floor plan has a high radiation angle and works well.

What is software defined and ultra wideband radio?

Almost every 144 MHz FM rig gets the ISS, you can even use a general coverage VHF scanner with an external antenna. As for the antenna, the simpler, the better. A ¼ wave floor plan has a high radiation angle and works well.

What is software defined and ultra wideband radio?

A flood of voices erupted from the airwaves. Astronauts aboard the space station often talk to students on Ham radio, which can also be used in emergencies, but these are scheduled appearances. Some, like Wheelock, spend their limited free time making contact with amateur radio operators around the world.

What is cognitive radio engine?

As mentioned above, the transceiver on board the ISS is tuned to transmit radio signals with a frequency of 145.80 MHz. “Anyone with a receiver or scanner that can tune in to this frequency can listen to the space station when it’s overhead,” Ransom said.

What is cognitive radio system?

What equipment do you need to hear the ISS? Almost every 144 MHz FM rig gets the ISS, you can even use a general coverage VHF scanner with an external antenna. As for the antenna, the simpler, the better. A ¼ wave floor plan has a high radiation angle and works well.

What are the functions of cognitive radio?

A flood of voices erupted from the airwaves. Astronauts aboard the space station often talk to students on Ham radio, which can also be used in emergencies, but these are scheduled appearances. Some, like Wheelock, spend their limited free time making contact with amateur radio operators around the world.

  • An amateur radio system is also on the International Space Station and is sometimes used by astronauts. It is broadcast at 145,800 MHz. If the astronauts do not transmit, a package module serves as a relay for the computer messages of amateur operators on the ground.
  • As mentioned before, radio waves are the best way to communicate between astronauts, but they are also useful for communicating with normal people like you! There is a HAM radio on board the ISS, and for the amateur radio operators on earth, that means you can talk directly to the astronauts on board!
  • Astronauts aboard the space station often talk to students on Ham radio, which can also be used in emergencies, but these are scheduled appearances. Some, like Wheelock, spend their limited free time making contact with amateur radio operators around the world.

What is cognitive engine?

The modern software defined radio is the heart of a cognitive radio. The applications running on the radio distinguish a cognitive radio from a software-defined radio. Additional hardware in the form of sensors and actuators enables more cognitive radio applications.

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What is waveform in SDR?

What is waveform in SDR?

What is Software Defined Radio? A software-defined radio (SDR) system is a radio communication system that uses software for the modulation and demodulation of radio signals. An SDR enables significant amounts of signal processing in a general purpose computer, or a reconfigurable piece of digital electronics.

Software-Defined Radio & Cognitive Radio SDR is a wireless platform implementation whose functionality is almost entirely based on executable software, unlike conventional wireless devices, where both digital signal processing and digital communication algorithms are implemented with integrated circuits.

What are the components of SDR?

Abstract: A software-defined radio (SDR) receiver architecture is proposed in this paper for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications. Both UWB data communication and positioning functions are implemented in a single hardware platform and use appropriate demodulation and positioning algorithms respectively.

How many types of SDR are there?

Abstract: A software-defined radio (SDR) receiver architecture is proposed in this paper for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications. Both UWB data communication and positioning functions are implemented in a single hardware platform and use appropriate demodulation and positioning algorithms respectively.From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia A Cognitive Radio (CR) is a radio that can be dynamically programmed and configured to use the best wireless channels in its vicinity to avoid user interference and congestion.Cognitive Radio System (CRS) is a radio system that is aware of its operational and geographical environment, established policies and its internal state. It is able to dynamically and autonomously adjust its operational parameters and protocols and learn from its past experience.
The main functions of cognitive radios are: Spectrum sensing: to detect and share unused spectrum, without harmful interference to other users; an important requirement of the cognitive radio network to feel empty spectrum …. [edit] FeaturesPassed filter detection.Energy detection.
Cyclostationary feature detection.Cognition Engine is a collection of machine learning algorithms that analyze transaction-based performance data across application topologies.Abstract: Waveform and software defined radio (SDR) is the most important application software that fulfills the function of communication. Waveform development is one of the most important aspects in the industry of SDR. … Based on the SCA specification, we analyze the types of components from a waveform.
What is a radio waveform? Soldier Radio Waveform (SRW) is a Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) networking software designed to provide voice, data, and video capabilities to small combat units and unmanned systems. SRW is the cornerstone of the army’s tactical network at the lowest level.The value of the SDR is based on a basket of five currencies – the US Dollar, the Euro, the Chinese Renminbi, the Japanese Yen, and the British Pound Sterling.Numm
TypFrequency rangeCross Country Wireless SDR Receiver v.3

What is an SDR device?

Pre-built

How does a SDR work?

472 – 479 kHz, 7.0 – 7.3 MHz / 10.10 – 10.15 MHz, and 14.00 – 14.35 MHz

What are the tradeoffs required in SDR?

Cyan

What are the limitations of SDR?

Pre-built

  • 100 kHz – 18 GHz
  • DRB 30
  • Pre-built

How CR can be realized using SDR?

30 kHz – 30 MHz

What is parameter controlled PaC SDR *?

DX Patrol

How does a SDR work?

Pre-built

How does RTL SDR work?

100 kHz – 2 GHz (RTL2832U, R820T, 40 MHz Upconverter)

How do SDR receivers work?

Software-defined radio (SDR) is a radio communication system where components traditionally implemented in hardware (eg mixers, filters, amplifiers, modulators / demodulators, detectors, etc.) instead of using software on a personal computer or embedded system.

What can you do with a SDR?

The value of the SDR is determined daily by the IMF on the basis of a fixed monetary amount of the currencies included in the SDR basket and the daily market exchange between the currencies included in the SDR basket. SDRs are only assigned to IMF members who choose to participate in the SDR department.

  • There is a fundamental alternation [11] between the width of the antenna beam and the antenna gain. Antenna architecture determines the number and bandwidth of RF channels. There are two approaches to support the wide range of frequencies of SDR.
  • Disadvantages of SDR technology
  • Analog to digital converters limit top frequencies that can be used by the digital section.
  • For very simple radios, the base platform can be too expensive.
  • Developing a software defined radio requires both hardware and software skills.
  • 15. How CR can be realized with SDR. Cognitive radio can be realized through software-defined radio (SDR) with sensory perception, RF autonomy, and integrated machine learning of the self, the user, the environment, and the “situation.”
  • Such a configuration, called parameter-controlled (PaC) SDR, guarantees that the transmission can be changed immediately if needed (for example, for intstandard handover).
  • The value of the SDR is determined daily by the IMF on the basis of a fixed monetary amount of the currencies included in the SDR basket and the daily market exchange between the currencies included in the SDR basket. SDRs are only assigned to IMF members who choose to participate in the SDR department.

What are the components of SDR?

To be used as SDR, the built-in DVB-T demodulator is turned off, which allows raw data from the A / D converters to go directly to the computer. It turns out that the chip at the heart of these dongles, the RTL2832U, is very flexible, as explained in the sequel.

Typically, an SDR receiver uses an ADC to convert the analog signals of the antenna into digital signals, which are processed with software on a general purpose processor.

How many types of SDR are there?

You can do several different things with an SDR as follows:Get broadcast radio.Amateur radio.
Radio Astronomy.Track ships via AIS transmissions.Track aircraft via Mode S transmissions.
Set up a DRM transmitter.Build a mobile network.Experiment with LTE.
The value of the SDR is based on a basket of five currencies – the US Dollar, the Euro, the Chinese Renminbi, the Japanese Yen, and the British Pound Sterling.What is an SDR device? Software-defined radio (SDR) is a radio communication system where components traditionally implemented in hardware (eg mixers, filters, amplifiers, modulators / demodulators, detectors, etc.) instead of using software on a personal computer or embedded system.Numm
TypFrequency rangeCross Country Wireless SDR Receiver v.3

What is SDR device?

Pre-built

What does RTL-SDR stand for?

472 – 479 kHz, 7.0 – 7.3 MHz / 10.10 – 10.15 MHz, and 14.00 – 14.35 MHz

What is DSP SDR?

Cyan

What are the components of a software defined radio?

Pre-built

What is SDR scanner?

100 kHz – 18 GHz

What can you do with an SDR?

DRB 30

  • Pre-built
  • 30 kHz – 30 MHz
  • DX Patrol
  • Pre-built
  • 100 kHz – 2 GHz (RTL2832U, R820T, 40 MHz Upconverter)
  • A software-defined radio (SDR) system is a radio communication system that uses software for the modulation and demodulation of radio signals. Software-defined radios have significant utility for cellular services that need to serve a wide variety of variable radio protocols in real time.
  • What is RTL and RTL-SDR? RTL is short for RTL2832U. The Realtek RTL2832U chipset was a popular choice for Digital Video Broadcast (DVB-T) receivers, whose original purpose was to receive video. It has been discovered that these can be hacked and converted into broadband SDR receivers.
  • In particular, a few key terms: Software-Defined Radio (SDR): A radio that uses software to perform signal processing tasks that have traditionally been performed by hardware. Digital Signal Processing (DSP): The digital processing of signals, in our case RF signals.

How does a SDR work?

A software defined radio is a radio in which the characteristics of carrier frequency, signal bandwidth, modulation and network access are defined by software. Modern SDR also implements all necessary cryptography, forward error correction coding, and source coding of voice, video or data also in software.

How does RTL SDR work?

RTL-SDR is a very inexpensive ~ $ 30 USB dongle that can be used as a computer-based radio scanner to receive live radio signals in your area (no internet required). Depending on the particular model, it could receive frequencies from 500 kHz to 1.75 GHz.

How do SDR receivers work?

You can do several different things with an SDR as follows:

What can you do with a SDR?

Get broadcast radio.

  • Amateur radio.
  • Radio Astronomy.
  • Track ships via AIS transmissions.
  • Track aircraft via Mode S transmissions.
  • Set up a DRM transmitter.
  • Build a mobile network.
  • Experiment with LTE.
  • The value of the SDR is determined daily by the IMF on the basis of a fixed monetary amount of the currencies included in the SDR basket and the daily market exchange between the currencies included in the SDR basket. SDRs are only assigned to IMF members who choose to participate in the SDR department.

What can I listen to with SDR?

To be used as SDR, the built-in DVB-T demodulator is turned off, which allows raw data from the A / D converters to go directly to the computer. It turns out that the chip at the heart of these dongles, the RTL2832U, is very flexible, as explained in the sequel.

  • Typically, an SDR receiver uses an ADC to convert the analog signals of the antenna into digital signals, which are processed with software on a general purpose processor.
  • You can do several different things with an SDR as follows:
  • Get broadcast radio.
  • Amateur radio.
  • Radio Astronomy.
  • Track ships via AIS transmissions.
  • Track aircraft via Mode S transmissions.
  • Set up a DRM transmitter.

Build a mobile network.

Can you watch TV with SDR?

Experiment with LTE.

What is RTL-SDR?

What can you do with SDR?

What is the range of RTL-SDR?

Get broadcast radio.

Can you watch TV with RTL-SDR?

Amateur radio.

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